Yum! Brands Reports Core Operating Profit Growth of 21% in First Quarter 2016

LOUISVILLE, Ky.–(hospitalitybusinessnews.com)–Yum! Brands, Inc. (NYSE: YUM) today reported results for the first quarter ended March 19, 2016, including EPS of $0.95 excluding Special Items. On a reported basis, EPS was $0.93 and operating profit growth was 12%.

Core operating profit growth and core operating margin growth figures exclude foreign currency translation and Special Items.

FIRST-QUARTER HIGHLIGHTS

  • Worldwide system sales increased 5%.
  • Worldwide same-store sales increased 2%.
  • Worldwide core operating profit increased 21%.
  • EPS excluding Special Items increased 19% to $0.95. Reported EPS increased 14% to $0.93.
  • Foreign currency translation negatively impacted operating profit by $28 million.
  • Opened 295 new restaurants worldwide; 72% of international development occurred in emerging markets.
  • On track with China separation to be complete by year end.
% Change
System Sales

Same-Store
Sales

Units

Core
Operating
Profit

Core
Operating
Margin (ppts)

China Division +11 +6 +5 +42 +4.6
KFC Division +5 +1 +2 +4 +0.3
Pizza Hut Division +4 +3 +1 +9 +2.6
Taco Bell Division +3 +1 +3 +4 +1.5
Worldwide +5 +2 +2 +21 +2.9

First Quarter

2016

2015

% Change

EPS Excluding Special Items $0.95 $0.80 19%
Special Items Gain/(Loss)1

$(0.02)

$0.01

NM

EPS $0.93 $0.81 14%

1 See Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measurements to GAAP Results for further detail of Special Items. Special Items in 2016 primarily relate to charges associated with the agreement reached in 2015 with KFC U.S. franchisees and costs associated with the planned separation of our China business.

Effective January 2016, the Company’s India business integrated its three restaurant brands into our global KFC, Pizza Hut and Taco Bell Divisions. Prior year figures have been restated to present comparable results.

Note: All comparisons are versus the same period a year ago and exclude Special Items unless noted. System sales figures on this page exclude foreign currency translation.

GREG CREED COMMENTS

Greg Creed, CEO, said “I’m very pleased with our results in the first quarter, including better-than-expected core operating profit growth of 21%, driven by 42% growth in our China business. KFC China had an outstanding Chinese New Year bucket promotion leading to 12% same-store sales growth for the quarter, underscoring the power of delivering insight-driven marketing that resonates with our customers. Companywide, all four of our Divisions posted positive same-store sales and core operating profit growth. I’m especially encouraged by the continued turnaround of our Pizza Hut U.S. business, which delivered 5% same-store sales growth.

While it’s early in the year and there may be bumps in the road, we’re confident in raising core operating profit growth guidance to 12%, from 10% previously. This is a transformational year for our company as we remain on track to finalize the separation of our China business by year end. We look forward to establishing two powerful, independent, focused growth companies dedicated to building on our brand strengths and rewarding our shareholders.”

CHINA DIVISION

First Quarter

%/ppts Change

2016

2015

Reported

Ex F/X

System Sales Growth +6 +11
Same-Store Sales Growth (%) +6 (12) NM NM
Franchise & License Fees ($MM) 25 21 +19 +25
Restaurant Margin (%) 22.4 18.9 3.5 3.4
Operating Profit ($MM) 256 190 +35 +42
Operating Margin (%) 19.7 15.1 4.6 4.6
  • China Division system sales increased 11%, excluding foreign currency translation.
    • Same-store sales increased 6%, with an increase of 12% at KFC, partially offset by a decline of 12% at Pizza Hut Casual Dining.
  • China Division opened 68 new units during the quarter.
China Units Q1 2016 % Change2
Restaurants1 7,205 +5
KFC 5,019 +3
Pizza Hut
Casual Dining 1,596 +17
Home Service 330 +22

1 Total includes East Dawning and Little Sheep units.

2 Represents year-over-year change.

  • Restaurant margin was 22.4%, an increase of 3.5 percentage points driven by sales leverage at KFC, productivity initiatives and commodity deflation, partially offset by labor inflation.
  • Foreign currency translation negatively impacted operating profit by $13 million.
  • Consistent with prior years, China Division’s first quarter includes January and February results only. The first quarter includes Chinese New Year, which is peak season for the China Division.
  • Leap year added an extra day in the quarter, resulting in an additional $6 million of operating profit.

KFC DIVISION

First Quarter

%/ppts Change

2016

2015

Reported

Ex F/X

Restaurants 14,941 14,584 +2 NA
System Sales Growth (2) +5
Same-Store Sales Growth (%) +1 +4 NM NM
Franchise & License Fees ($MM) 195 198 (1) +6
Restaurant Margin (%) 14.9 14.5 0.4 0.3
Operating Profit ($MM) 160 166 (4) +4
Operating Margin (%) 25.5 25.0 0.5 0.3
  • KFC Division system sales increased 5%, excluding foreign currency translation.
First Quarter (% Change)

Int’l Emerging Markets

Intl Developed Markets

U.S.
System Sales Growth (Ex F/X) +8 +5 Even
Same-Store Sales Growth +1 +1 +1
  • KFC Division opened 79 new international restaurants in 32 countries, including 56 units in emerging markets. 77% of these new units were opened by franchisees.
  • Operating margin increased 0.5 percentage points driven by new-unit development.
  • Core operating profit grew 7% in the quarter excluding the incremental advertising expense associated with the 2015 agreement reached with KFC U.S. franchisees.
  • Foreign currency translation negatively impacted operating profit by $13 million, as approximately 90% of division profits are generated outside the U.S.
KFC MARKETS1

Percent of KFC
System Sales 2

SYSTEM Sales Growth Ex F/X
First Quarter (%)
Emerging Markets
Asia (e.g. Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines) 7% +9
Africa 6% +7
Latin America (e.g. Mexico, Peru) 6% +6
Middle East / North Africa 6% +3
Russia 5% +27
Thailand 3% +5
Continental Europe (e.g. Poland) 3% +17
India 1% (1)
Developed Markets
U.S. 24% Even
Australia 10% +5
Asia (e.g. Japan, Korea, Taiwan) 9% +6
U.K. 9% Even
Continental Europe (e.g. France, Germany) 7% +9
Canada 3% +5
Latin America (e.g. Puerto Rico) 1% (3)

1 See website www.yum.com/investors for a list of the countries within each of the markets.

2 Reflects Full Year 2015.

PIZZA HUT DIVISION

First Quarter

%/ppts Change

2016

2015

Reported

Ex F/X

Restaurants 14,142 14,026 +1 NA
System Sales Growth +1 +4
Same-Store Sales Growth (%) +3 Even NM NM
Franchise & License Fees ($MM) 133 128 +3 +6
Restaurant Margin (%) 11.1 11.6 (0.5) (0.8)
Operating Profit ($MM) 87 81 +7 +9
Operating Margin (%) 32.9 29.8 3.1 2.6
  • Pizza Hut Division system sales increased 4%, excluding foreign currency translation.
First Quarter (% Change)

Int’l Emerging Markets

Int’l Developed Markets

U.S.
System Sales Growth (Ex F/X) +6 +1 +4
Same-Store Sales Growth Even (1) +5
  • Pizza Hut Division opened 63 new international restaurants in 27 countries, including 30 units in emerging markets. 87% of these new units were opened by franchisees.
  • Operating margin increased 3.1 percentage points, driven by same-store sales growth and reduced G&A.
  • Foreign currency translation negatively impacted operating profit by $1 million.
PIZZA HUT MARKETS1

Percent of Pizza
Hut System Sales2

SYSTEM Sales Growth Ex F/X
First Quarter (%)
Emerging Markets
Latin America (e.g. Mexico, Peru) 7% +10
Asia (e.g. Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines) 5% +1
Middle East / North Africa 5% +4
Continental Europe (e.g. Poland) 1% +14
India 1% (6)
Developed Markets
U.S. 55% +4
Asia (e.g. Japan, Korea, Taiwan) 8% (8)
U.K. 7% +5
Continental Europe (e.g. France, Germany) 5% +6
Canada 3% +10
Australia 2% (10)
Latin America (e.g. Puerto Rico) 1% (5)

1 See website www.yum.com/investors for a list of the countries within each of the markets.

2 Reflects Full Year 2015.

TACO BELL DIVISION

First Quarter

%/ppts Change

2016

2015

Reported

Ex F/X

Restaurants 6,437 6,235 +3 NA
System Sales Growth +3 +3
Same-Store Sales Growth (%) +1 +6 NM NM
Franchise & License Fees ($MM) 101 96 +6 +6
Restaurant Margin (%) 21.0 19.5 1.5 1.5
Operating Profit ($MM) 119 114 +4 +4
Operating Margin (%) 28.0 26.5 1.5 1.5
  • Taco Bell Division system sales increased 3%, driven by 1% same-store sales growth and 3% unit growth.
  • Taco Bell Division opened 49 new restaurants; 90% of these new units were opened by franchisees.
  • Restaurant margin was 21.0%, an increase of 1.5 percentage points driven by favorable U.S. commodities and prior-year pricing actions, partially offset by labor inflation.
  • Operating margin increased 1.5 percentage points driven by new-unit development and same-store sales growth, partially offset by increased G&A primarily related to higher legal costs.

SPECIAL ITEMS / SHARE REPURCHASE UPDATE

  • During the first quarter of 2015, we reached an agreement with our KFC U.S. franchisees that gave us brand marketing control, as well as an accelerated path to expanded menu offerings, improved assets and an enhanced customer experience. In connection with this agreement, we recognized a Special Items charge of $9 million during the quarter, primarily related to the funding of investments for new back-of-house equipment for franchisees.
  • During the quarter, we incurred a Special Items charge of $9 million for costs related to the planned separation of our China business.
  • Year-to-date through April 19, 2016, we repurchased 13.3 million shares totaling $925 million at an average price of $70. Since we announced our intention to separate the China business, we have repurchased 24.7 million shares totaling $1.8 billion at an average price of $71. This is part of our previously announced plan to return $6.2 billion of capital to shareholders prior to the separation of our China business.

 

YUM! Brands, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Summary of Results

(amounts in millions, except per share amounts)

(unaudited)

Quarter ended % Change
3/19/16 3/21/15 B/(W)
Company sales $ 2,165 $ 2,179 (1)
Franchise and license fees and income 454 443 3
Total revenues 2,619 2,622
Company restaurant expenses
Food and paper 649 688 6
Payroll and employee benefits 486 493 2
Occupancy and other operating expenses 597 616 3
Company restaurant expenses 1,732 1,797 4
General and administrative expenses 286 295 3
Franchise and license expenses 48 34 (36)
Closures and impairment (income) expenses 3 3 3
Refranchising (gain) loss (7 ) (10 ) (33)
Other (income) expense (7 ) (3 ) NM
Total costs and expenses, net 2,055 2,116 3
Operating Profit 564 506 12
Interest expense, net 37 34 (9)
Income before income taxes 527 472 12
Income tax provision 132 111 (19)
Net income – including noncontrolling interests 395 361 9
Net income (loss) – noncontrolling interests 4 (1 ) NM
Net income – YUM! Brands, Inc. $ 391 $ 362 8

Effective tax rate

25.0 % 23.4 % (1.6 ppts.)

Basic EPS Data

EPS $ 0.94 $ 0.83 14
Average shares outstanding 416 438 5

Diluted EPS Data

EPS $ 0.93 $ 0.81 14
Average shares outstanding 422 446 5
Dividends declared per common share $ 0.46 $

See accompanying notes.

Percentages may not recompute due to rounding.

YUM! Brands, Inc.

CHINA DIVISION Operating Results

(amounts in millions)

(unaudited)

Quarter ended % Change
3/19/16 3/21/15 B/(W)
Company sales $ 1,278 $ 1,235 3
Franchise and license fees and income 25 21 19
Total revenues 1,303 1,256 4
Company restaurant expenses
Food and paper 385 392 2
Payroll and employee benefits 245 244 (1)
Occupancy and other operating expenses 362 366 1
Company restaurant expenses 992 1,002 1
General and administrative expenses 66 68 3
Franchise and license expenses 4 4 6
Closures and impairment (income) expenses 2 80
Other (income) expense (15 ) (10 ) 62

Total costs and expenses, net

1,047 1,066 2
Operating Profit $ 256 $ 190 35
Company sales 100.0 % 100.0 %
Food and paper 30.1 31.8 1.7 ppts.
Payroll and employee benefits 19.2 19.7 0.5 ppts.
Occupancy and other operating expenses 28.3 29.6 1.3 ppts.
Restaurant margin 22.4 % 18.9 % 3.5 ppts.
Operating margin 19.7 % 15.1 % 4.6 ppts.

See accompanying notes.

Percentages may not recompute due to rounding.

YUM! Brands, Inc.

KFC DIVISION Operating Results

(amounts in millions)

(unaudited)

Quarter ended % Change
3/19/16 3/21/15 B/(W)
Company sales $ 430 $ 464 (7)
Franchise and license fees and income 195 198 (1)
Total revenues 625 662 (5)
Company restaurant expenses
Food and paper 145 161 10
Payroll and employee benefits 103 107 4
Occupancy and other operating expenses 118 129 8
Company restaurant expenses 366 397 8
General and administrative expenses 76 82 6
Franchise and license expenses 21 17 (23)
Closures and impairment (income) expenses 2 NM
Other (income) expense (80)

Total costs and expenses, net

465 496 6
Operating Profit $ 160 $ 166 (4)
Company sales 100.0 % 100.0 %
Food and paper 33.7 34.6 0.9 ppts.
Payroll and employee benefits 23.9 23.1 (0.8 ppts.)
Occupancy and other operating expenses 27.5 27.8 0.3 ppts.
Restaurant margin 14.9 % 14.5 % 0.4 ppts.
Operating margin 25.5 % 25.0 % 0.5 ppts.

See accompanying notes.

Percentages may not recompute due to rounding.

YUM! Brands, Inc.

PIZZA HUT DIVISION Operating Results

(amounts in millions)

(unaudited)

Quarter ended % Change
3/19/16 3/21/15 B/(W)
Company sales $ 132 $ 144 (8)
Franchise and license fees and income 133 128 3
Total revenues 265 272 (3)
Company restaurant expenses
Food and paper 36 40 9
Payroll and employee benefits 41 44 7
Occupancy and other operating expenses 40 43 6
Company restaurant expenses 117 127 7
General and administrative expenses 50 57 14
Franchise and license expenses 10 9 (13)
Closures and impairment (income) expenses 1 NM
Other (income) expense (2 ) NM

Total costs and expenses, net

178 191 7
Operating Profit $ 87 $ 81 7
Company sales 100.0 % 100.0 %
Food and paper 27.4 27.8 0.4 ppts.
Payroll and employee benefits 31.1 30.8 (0.3 ppts.)
Occupancy and other operating expenses 30.4 29.8 (0.6 ppts.)
Restaurant margin 11.1 % 11.6 % (0.5 ppts.)
Operating margin 32.9 % 29.8 % 3.1 ppts.

See accompanying notes.

Percentages may not recompute due to rounding.

YUM! Brands, Inc.

TACO BELL DIVISION Operating Results

(amounts in millions)

(unaudited)

Quarter ended % Change
3/19/16 3/21/15 B/(W)
Company sales $ 325 $ 336 (3)
Franchise and license fees and income 101 96 6
Total revenues 426 432 (1)
Company restaurant expenses
Food and paper 83 95 12
Payroll and employee benefits 97 98 1
Occupancy and other operating expenses 77 78 1
Company restaurant expenses 257 271 5
General and administrative expenses 46 44 (6)
Franchise and license expenses 4 2 (24)
Closures and impairment (income) expenses 1 99
Other (income) expense (25)

Total costs and expenses, net

307 318 3
Operating Profit $ 119 $ 114 4
Company sales 100.0 % 100.0 %
Food and paper 25.5 28.2 2.7 ppts.
Payroll and employee benefits 29.7 29.1 (0.6 ppts.)
Occupancy and other operating expenses 23.8 23.2 (0.6 ppts.)
Restaurant margin 21.0 % 19.5 % 1.5 ppts.
Operating margin 28.0 % 26.5 % 1.5 ppts.

See accompanying notes.

Percentages may not recompute due to rounding.

YUM! Brands, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(amounts in millions)

(unaudited)
3/19/16 12/26/15
ASSETS
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents $ 934 $ 737
Accounts and notes receivable, less allowance: $20 in 2016 and $16 in 2015 418 377
Inventories 210 229
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 279

241

Advertising cooperative assets, restricted 122 103
Total Current Assets 1,963

1,687

Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization of $3,682 in 2016 and $3,643 in 2015

4,111 4,189
Goodwill 644 656
Intangible assets, net 265 271
Investments in unconsolidated affiliates 36 61
Other assets 500

521

Deferred income taxes 702 676
Total Assets $ 8,221 $

8,061

LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY

Current Liabilities
Accounts payable and other current liabilities $ 2,055 $ 1,985
Income taxes payable 150 77
Short-term borrowings 2,321

922

Advertising cooperative liabilities 122 103
Total Current Liabilities 4,648

3,087

Long-term debt 2,510 3,040
Other liabilities and deferred credits 846

959

Total Liabilities 8,004 7,086
Redeemable noncontrolling interest 7 6

Shareholders’ Equity

Common stock, no par value, 750 shares authorized; 407 shares and 420 shares issued in 2016 and 2015, respectively 2
Retained earnings 454 1,150
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (300 ) (239 )

Total Shareholders’ Equity – YUM! Brands, Inc.

156 911
Noncontrolling interests 54 58

Total Shareholders’ Equity

210 969

Total Liabilities, Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest and Shareholders’ Equity

$ 8,221 $ 8,061

See accompanying notes.

YUM! Brands, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(amounts in millions)

(unaudited)

Quarter ended

3/19/16 3/21/15
Cash Flows – Operating Activities
Net income – including noncontrolling interests $ 395 $ 361
Depreciation and amortization 136 139
Closures and impairment (income) expenses 3 3
Refranchising (gain) loss (7 ) (10 )
Contributions to defined benefit pension plans (2 ) (76 )
Deferred income taxes (25 ) (29 )
Equity income from investments in unconsolidated affiliates (16 ) (9 )
Excess tax benefit from share-based compensation (11 ) (19 )
Share-based compensation expense 13 15
Changes in accounts and notes receivable 33 3
Changes in inventories 17 21
Changes in prepaid expenses and other current assets

(27 )
Changes in accounts payable and other current liabilities 66 113
Changes in income taxes payable 95 51
Other, net

(38

) (20 )
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities 659 516
Cash Flows – Investing Activities
Capital spending (160 ) (227 )
Changes in short-term investments, net (51 ) (24 )
Proceeds from refranchising of restaurants 9 22
Other, net 1 33
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities (201 ) (196 )
Cash Flows – Financing Activities
Repayments of long-term debt (2 ) (3 )
Short-term borrowings by original maturity
More than three months – proceeds 1,400
More than three months – payments

Three months or less, net
Revolving credit facilities, three months or less, net (524 ) 53
Repurchase shares of Common Stock (925 ) (124 )
Excess tax benefit from share-based compensation 11 19
Employee stock option proceeds 1 10
Dividends paid on Common Stock (192 ) (178 )
Other, net (12 ) (23 )
Net Cash Used in Financing Activities (243 ) (246 )
Effect of Exchange Rate on Cash and Cash Equivalents (18 ) 23
Net Increase in Cash and Cash Equivalents 197 97
Cash and Cash Equivalents – Beginning of Period 737 578
Cash and Cash Equivalents – End of Period $ 934 $ 675

See accompanying notes.

Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measurements to GAAP Results
(amounts in millions, except per share amounts)
(unaudited)

In addition to the results provided in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) throughout this document, the Company has provided non-GAAP measurements which present operating results in 2016 and 2015 on a basis before Special Items. Included in Special Items are gains/(losses) associated with the costs associated with the planned spin-off of the China business and YUM recapitalization, costs associated with the KFC U.S. Acceleration Agreement and certain refranchising initiatives. These amounts are described in (c), (d) and (e) in the accompanying notes.

The Company uses earnings before Special Items as a key performance measure of results of operations for the purpose of evaluating performance internally and Special Items are not included in any of our segment results. This non-GAAP measurement is not intended to replace the presentation of our financial results in accordance with GAAP. Rather, the Company believes that the presentation of earnings before Special Items provides additional information to investors to facilitate the comparison of past and present operations, excluding items in the quarters ended March 19, 2016 and March 21, 2015 that the Company does not believe are indicative of our ongoing operations due to their size and/or nature.

Quarter ended
3/19/16 3/21/15
Detail of Special Items
Costs associated with the planned spin-off of the China business and YUM recapitalization(c) $ (9 ) $
Costs associated with KFC U.S. Acceleration Agreement(d) (9 ) (2 )
Refranchising initiatives(e) 3 7
Total Special Items Income (Expense) (15 ) 5
Tax Benefit (Expense) on Special Items 4 (2 )
Special Items Income (Expense), net of tax $ (11 ) $ 3
Average diluted shares outstanding 422 446
Special Items diluted EPS $ (0.02 ) $ 0.01
Reconciliation of Operating Profit Before Special Items to Reported Operating Profit
Operating Profit Before Special Items $ 579 $ 501
Special Items Income (Expense) (15 ) 5
Reported Operating Profit $ 564 $ 506
Reconciliation of EPS Before Special Items to Reported EPS
Diluted EPS Before Special Items $ 0.95 $ 0.80
Special Items EPS (0.02 ) 0.01
Reported EPS $ 0.93 $ 0.81
Reconciliation of Effective Tax Rate Before Special Items to Reported Effective Tax Rate
Effective Tax Rate Before Special Items 25.0 % 23.3 %
Impact on Tax Rate as a result of Special Items % 0.1 %
Reported Effective Tax Rate 25.0 % 23.4 %

YUM! Brands, Inc.

Segment Results

(amounts in millions)

(unaudited)

Quarter Ended 3/19/16 China KFC Pizza Hut Taco Bell

Corporate

and

Unallocated

Consolidated
Total revenues $ 1,303 $ 625 $ 265 $ 426 $ $ 2,619
Company restaurant expenses 992 366 117 257 1,732
General and administrative expenses 66 76 50 46 48 286
Franchise and license expenses 4 21 10 4 9 48
Closures and impairment (income) expenses 2 1 3
Refranchising (gain) loss (7 ) (7 )
Other (income) expense (15 ) 8 (7 )
1,047 465 178 307 58 2,055
Operating Profit (loss) $ 256 $ 160 $ 87 $ 119 $ (58 ) $ 564

Quarter Ended 3/21/15

China KFC Pizza Hut Taco Bell

Corporate

and

Unallocated

Consolidated
Total revenues $ 1,256 $ 662 $ 272 $ 432 $ $ 2,622
Company restaurant expenses 1,002 397 127 271 1,797
General and administrative expenses 68 82 57 44 44 295
Franchise and license expenses 4 17 9 2 2 34
Closures and impairment (income) expenses 2 1 3
Refranchising (gain) loss (10 ) (10 )
Other (income) expense (10 ) (2 ) 9 (3 )
1,066 496 191 318 45 2,116
Operating Profit (loss) $ 190 $ 166 $ 81 $ 114 $ (45 ) $ 506

The above tables reconcile segment information, which is based on management responsibility, with our Condensed Consolidated Summary of Results. Corporate and unallocated expenses comprise items that are not allocated to segments for performance reporting purposes.

The Corporate and Unallocated column in the above tables includes, among other amounts, all amounts that we have deemed Special Items. See Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measurements to GAAP Results.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Summary of Results, Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
and Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(amounts in millions)
(unaudited)

(a)

Amounts presented as of and for the quarter ended March 19, 2016 are preliminary.
(b) Other (income) expense for the China Division primarily consists of equity (income) loss from investments in unconsolidated affiliates.
(c)

In October, 2015 we announced our intent to separate YUM’s China business from YUM into an independent, publicly-traded company by the end of 2016.  This transaction, which is expected to be a tax-free spin-off of our China business, will create two powerful, independent, focused growth companies with distinct strategies, financial profiles and investment characteristics.  Additionally, we plan to optimize the capital structure of YUM! Brands through the issuance of new debt that will allow us to return significant capital to shareholders. During the quarter ended March 19, 2016 we incurred costs of $9 million related to these initiatives.

(d) During the first quarter of 2015, we reached an agreement with our KFC U.S. franchisees that gave us brand marketing control as well as an accelerated path to improved assets and customer experience. In connection with this agreement we recognized Special Item charges for the quarter ended March 19, 2016 of $9 million, primarily related to the funding of investments for new back-of-house equipment for franchisees.
(e)

We have historically recorded refranchising gains and losses in the U.S. as Special Items due to the scope of our refranchising program and the volatility in associated gains and losses.  Beginning in 2016, we are also including all international refranchising gains and losses, excluding China, in Special Items.  The inclusion in Special Items of these additional international refranchising gains and losses is the result of the anticipated size and volatility of refranchising initiatives outside the U.S. that will take place in connection with our previously announced plans to have 96% franchise ownership by the end of 2017.  During the quarters ended March 19, 2016 and March 21, 2015 we recorded refranchising gains of $3 million and $7 million, respectively, that have been reflected as Special Items.

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